The device of a kitchen hood: the anatomy of clean air in the kitchen

If you have not previously encountered the choice and installation of kitchen hoods, then their design may seem rather complicated.

In fact, the hood device in the kitchen is quite accessible even for self-study - and if you have a quality instruction or an explanatory article, you can easily figure it out.

the device of a kitchen hood

Extractor fan in the kitchen

Hoods of flow type

Features of the flow hood design

In the stores of home appliances today we can meet a huge number of different types of kitchen hoods. Their models differ in size, design, price, performance, etc. But the main difference lies in the very principle of the hoods.

According to this parameter all the hoods are divided into:

  • Supply (exhaust);
  • Recirculation (filtering).
cooker hood in the kitchen

Scheme of supply air (left) and filter (right) exhaust

Hoods of the flow type are designed to actively draw air from the space above the cooker or work surface and remove it into the building ventilation system through a duct-duct.

Flow-through hoods are passive and active.

  • Passive hoods Flow type does not contain in its design electric motors. The capture and removal of air from the kitchen occurs solely due to draft in the ventilation duct system.
    Such extracts have a fairly long history, but today in kitchens in private houses and apartments are almost not used.
  • Active hoods work at the expense of the electric motor installed inside the dome. During operation, the motor generates a sufficiently powerful upward flow of air, so that soot, soot, drops of air-weighed grease, etc. are removed from the kitchen.

Regardless of the type of flow hood, it is installed in the kitchen directly above the stove. To connect the extractor to the ventilation ducts of the building, metal ducts are used. Most often as a duct, a corrugated pipe or a tin sealed box is used.

how the cooker hood works in the kitchen

Flow drawing

Note! In order to avoid any noise when air passes through the duct, the soundproofing material (for example, batting) is wrapped around the pipe. Also, quite often the air ducts hide behind suspended ceilings.

The fixing of the duct on the neck of the hood is carried out with the help of special metal clamps. For more effective joining of the air duct and ventilation duct, you can use a special grid - adapter (pictured).

how the cooker works

Hood connection to ventilation

What determines the operation of the flow hoods

The effectiveness of this extract depends not only on its dimensions and power, but also on the condition of the ventilation system of the building:

  • If the ventilation ducts are clogged with debris or old plaster - the productivity of the exhaust hood extraction is significantly reduced.
    To prevent this, you must either clean the dushers yourself, or (if you live in an apartment) - contact the housing maintenance organizations with the requirement to make ventilation in order.
  • In addition to ventilation for the correct operation of the extractor is also important airflow. In order to ensure airflow in the kitchen, either install a ventilation valve (can be wall or window), or make decorative perforation at the bottom of the kitchen door.

The main advantage of the flow-type hoods is that they not only clean the air in the kitchen, but also replace it with fresh - with a large content of oxygen and less - carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Hoods of recirculation type

Principle of filter hoods operation

Unlike the flow-through hoods, the circulation hoods do not need to be connected to the ventilation shaft of the building.

Below we describe how the filter hood works:

  • Under the influence of the rotating blades of the exhaust engine, the air above the plate is sucked into its housing.
  • At the entrance to the body, the contaminated air passes through the first filter (the so-called grease trap). On this filter, not only drops of fat are retained, but also soot, soot particles, dust, etc.
  • Passed rough cleaning air under pressure is pumped into the second filter. This filter is designed for fine air purification (small particles of soot, unpleasant odors, etc.) and is a cartridge filled with granular charcoal.
  • After passing two filters, the purified air flows back to the kitchen.
scheme of cooker hoods

Compact circulation hood

Advantages of recirculation hoods

Despite the fact that the historically recirculated extracts appeared much later than the flow-type exhausts, they nevertheless gained some popularity.

The reason for this is the advantages that filtering hoods provide to their owners:

  • Firstly, the effectiveness of the exhaust system of this type is not related to the state of ventilation of the building.
    That is why recirculation hoods are installed in houses with poorly functioning ventilation, and also in private houses.
  • Secondly, the lack of air ducts not only greatly simplifies the installation of the hood, but also contributes to the creation of a more harmonious interior in the kitchen.
    At a minimum, we do not have to look for ways to mask a large metal pipe from the ceiling.
  • Thirdly, care of the filter hoods is very simple, and consists only in the periodic cleaning of the anti-fat filter and the replacement of the filter of coal.

The key drawback of such hoods is one - they do not replace the air in the room, but only drive it through filters. Therefore, although the hood and smells extract well, the carbon dioxide content in the air remains at the same level as before filtration. This means that it will be necessary to ventilate the kitchen more often.

Elements of the hood design

Housing and ducts

The modern extractor hood consists of several elements - and below we will consider each of them in sufficient detail.

And we begin to consider the details from those that are in our mind:

electric circuit for cooker hoods

Decorative case

  • The design of the hull and airway pipes is important, primarily for flow-type hoods. With the hoods with filters the air duct is not provided, as such - and the body performs almost exclusively a decorative function.
  • Toli case - pulling hoods. As a rule, they are made in the form of fairly large domes. This shape facilitates the absorption of air over the cooking stove and does not allow contaminated air to spread around the kitchen.
  • The surface of the body - both internal and external - should be periodically cleaned from the fatty coating.
    If you need to do this from the outside to provide an attractive appearance, then inside - to keep the hood in working order.
  • Air ducts can also be of different shapes, but more often than not, as we noted above, they are made round or square in cross section. The optimum duct diameter is 150 mm or more.
The device of a kitchen hood: the anatomy of clean air in the kitchen

Installation of air ducts

The fewer knees (ie turns) the air duct has, the more efficient the extractor works. Each turn of the duct for 900 reduces the productivity of the hood by 10%.

Engine and "stuffing"

Next on the line will be the engine - the "heart" of our hood. In some models, two engines are installed, which provides a significant increase in power.

Typically, the kitchen exhausters are equipped with electric motors with a capacity of 50 to 200 watts with a speed of 1500 to 2000 rpm. The power of the engine directly depends on the productivity of the hood, as well as the volume of its energy consumption.

The device of a kitchen hood: the anatomy of clean air in the kitchen

Extraction motor

An important parameter when choosing a hood is the volume of its engine. As a rule, more powerful engines work more noisily, so do not take the hood with a large margin of power - because it will also make more noise.

In addition to the engine, the energy consumption of the hood is also affected by the installed lamps, which provide a directional illumination of the plate or work surface. As a backlight, either halogen or LED lights are installed.

The second option is more economical, since halogen lamps consume almost as much energy as standard incandescent lamps.

To connect the hood to the mains (220V, 50Hz), a cord is used. As a rule, its length is not more than two meters, because often you either have to use an extension cord, or mount an overhead outlet.

The current strength is about 1A, so to connect the outlet you need wire cross-section 0.75 mm2 and more.

In fact, the electric scheme of the kitchen hood is not very complicated. That's why, if you have the appropriate skills, you can repair the electrical part of the hood yourself.

The device of a kitchen hood: the anatomy of clean air in the kitchen

The basic electric circuit of a kitchen hood: in the help to the master

Antifire Filter

The next extract element, which we will consider, is a grease filter.

This filter is installed "at the entrance" in extracts of almost any type, and not only cleans the air of large impurities, but also protects the engine and electrical components from fat deposits.

The device of a kitchen hood: the anatomy of clean air in the kitchen

Grease filter

  • Grease filter is a cassette made of metal mesh or a perforated foil placed in several layers. When choosing a drawing model, it is better to give preference to those devices in which anti-grease filters are equipped with an anticorrosive coating.
  • Inexpensive extracts can also be completed with disposable anti-grease filters. Such filters are made of synthetic fabric and require periodic replacement. And although the price of such a filter is rather low, it is still better to purchase models with metal grease catchers.
  • Antifire filter requires periodic cleaning from contamination. To remove fat is most often used for washing dishes - as a rule, this is enough.

Coal filter

For finer filtration, and most importantly, carbon filters are used to purify air of unpleasant odors in recirculation exhausts:

The device of a kitchen hood: the anatomy of clean air in the kitchen

Carbon filters for different models of hoods

  • The charcoal filter is installed behind the exhaust engine, which ensures the passage of air through it under considerable pressure.
  • The design of the coal filter includes a plastic housing, inside of which is a coal powder or coal pellets.
  • Avoid wetting the charcoal filter, since the charcoal creates resistance to the passage of air, reducing the power of the hood.
  • Carbon filters are non-refillable filters, therefore after the expiry of their service life they require replacement. Usually information about the operating time of the filter contains instructions to the hood itself.

Replace the carbon filters are quite simple - just press the latches and remove the filter housing from the mounts. Do not use excessive force to avoid damaging the latches. If you are not sure how to remove the filter correctly, we recommend that you review the explanatory video.

We hope that the information in this article on how the cooker hood works in the kitchen will prove to be useful. And when it's time to make a choice in favor of this or that model (see also how to choose a hood for the kitchen) - you will choose the device that best suits your requirements.

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